How Did Enlightenment Thinkers Approach The Study Of Government?

The Enlightenment period, spanning the 17th and 18th centuries, was characterized by a shift in thinking that emphasized reason, individual rights, and progress. During this time, Enlightenment thinkers devoted considerable attention to the study of government, seeking to understand and redefine its purpose and structure. Let’s explore how these philosophers approached the study of government:

1. Social Contract Theory

One prominent approach taken by Enlightenment thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, was the development of social contract theory. According to this theory, individuals voluntarily come together and form a society, establishing a contract with the government to protect their natural rights and ensure order. Enlightenment thinkers explored the nature of this social contract, the rights and responsibilities of citizens, and the limits of governmental power.

2. Separation of Powers

Enlightenment thinkers, notably Montesquieu, proposed the idea of the separation of powers within government. They believed that power should be divided among different branches or institutions to prevent any one entity from becoming too powerful. This concept laid the foundation for the modern democratic system, with its executive, legislative, and judicial branches serving as checks and balances on one another.

3. Natural Rights and Individual Liberty

Enlightenment thinkers emphasized the importance of natural rights and individual liberty. They argued that individuals possess inherent rights, such as life, liberty, and property, which governments must protect. Thinkers like John Locke advocated for limited government intervention and championed individual freedoms as essential components of a just and prosperous society.

4. Popular Sovereignty

Another key idea explored by Enlightenment thinkers was the concept of popular sovereignty, which asserts that ultimate political authority rests with the people. They questioned the legitimacy of absolute monarchies and proposed that governments should derive their power from the consent of the governed. This notion formed the basis for modern democratic principles and the idea of government by the people, for the people.

5. Rationality and Progress

Enlightenment thinkers believed in the power of reason and sought to apply rational thought to governance. They advocated for evidence-based decision-making, scientific inquiry, and the use of empirical evidence to shape public policy. Their emphasis on rationality and progress paved the way for the Age of Enlightenment, during which significant advancements were made in various fields, including politics, science, and technology.


In conclusion, Enlightenment thinkers approached the study of government with a critical and rational mindset. They sought to redefine the purpose of government, emphasizing the protection of natural rights, the separation of powers, and the consent of the governed. Their ideas continue to influence political thought and have played a significant role in shaping modern democratic systems around the world.