Social Contract Theory: Thomas Hobbes

The Social Contract Theory, as developed by Thomas Hobbes, is a fundamental concept in political philosophy that explores the relationship between individuals and the government. Hobbes believed that in the absence of a governing authority, human life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. To escape this state of nature, individuals enter into a social contract, surrendering some of their rights to a sovereign authority. Let’s delve into the key ideas of Hobbes’ Social Contract Theory:

The State of Nature

Hobbes argued that in the state of nature, where there is no centralized authority, individuals have the freedom to pursue their own interests, but this leads to a perpetual state of conflict and insecurity. In the absence of law and order, people’s lives become chaotic and violent. According to Hobbes, the state of nature is undesirable and unsustainable.

The Social Contract

Hobbes proposed that individuals voluntarily give up some of their natural rights to a sovereign authority through a social contract. This contract establishes a government that has the power to maintain order, protect citizens, and resolve disputes. In return, individuals gain security and stability within society.

Absolute Sovereignty

In Hobbes’ Social Contract Theory, the sovereign authority holds absolute power and is not subject to the same laws as the citizens. This is because the sovereign acts as the ultimate arbiter and enforcer of laws, maintaining order and preventing conflict. The citizens, in turn, relinquish their right to challenge or overthrow the sovereign in exchange for protection and a stable society.

Consent and Obligation

Hobbes argued that once individuals enter into the social contract and create a government, they have an obligation to obey its laws. This obligation arises from their original consent to the contract. However, this consent is not ongoing but rather a one-time agreement that establishes the authority of the sovereign. The citizens’ obedience is necessary for the functioning of the social contract and the preservation of social order.


Hobbes’ Social Contract Theory provides a thought-provoking perspective on the relationship between individuals and the government. It emphasizes the necessity of a strong sovereign authority to maintain order and security within society. While the theory has its critics and alternative interpretations, understanding Hobbes’ ideas can shed light on the broader concept of the social contract and its implications for political philosophy.