Which Enlightenment Philosopher Believed in Equality for All People, Especially the Common Man?

The Enlightenment was a period of intellectual and philosophical enlightenment that took place in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Many Enlightenment philosophers advocated for equality and individual rights, but one philosopher, in particular, stood out for his belief in equality for all people, especially the common man. Let’s explore the ideas and contributions of this philosopher:

The Philosopher: Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a Swiss philosopher and writer, is known for his influential works on political philosophy, including “The Social Contract” and “Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men.” Rousseau believed in the natural goodness of humanity and argued that society and its institutions corrupted individuals and created inequality.

Rousseau’s Concept of Social Contract

Rousseau’s concept of the social contract played a significant role in his belief in equality. According to Rousseau, individuals enter into a social contract with one another, surrendering their individual rights to the collective will of society. In this contract, every individual is considered equal, and decisions should be made in the best interest of the general will, reflecting the common good.

The General Will and the Common Man

Rousseau emphasized the importance of the general will, which represents the collective desires and interests of the people as a whole. He believed that the common man, the ordinary citizen, should have a say in the formation of laws and the governance of society. Rousseau argued that true sovereignty lies with the people, and every individual should have an equal voice in shaping the rules and regulations that govern their lives.

Impact and Legacy

Rousseau’s ideas on equality and the importance of the common man had a profound impact on political thought and inspired future revolutions and movements for social justice. His emphasis on popular sovereignty and the belief that all individuals should have an equal say in the affairs of society challenged existing systems of monarchy and aristocracy.


In conclusion, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, an Enlightenment philosopher, believed in equality for all people, especially the common man. His concept of the social contract and emphasis on the general will emphasized the importance of equal participation and representation in society. Rousseau’s ideas had a lasting impact on political thought and continue to shape discussions on equality and individual rights to this day.